Chlorhexidine: The Molecule
Chlorhexidine is a cationic bisbiguanide, was developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1950s and introduced into the USA in the 1970
Chlorhexidine base is barely soluble in water, but it is available in salt forms: chlorhexidine diacetate (CHA), chlorhexidine dihydrochloride, chlorhexidine digluconate (bigluconate), chlorhexidine gluconate and chlorhexidine phosphate. These salts forms chlorhexidine solutions that are colorless, odorless and have a bitter taste.
In healthcare or commercial use, chlorhexidine digluconate is one of the more commonly used forms of the chlorhexidine salts.
The antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine appears to be attributable to the attachment to, and subsequent disruption of cytoplasmic membranes, resulting in precipitation of cellular contents